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body was assumed directly into heaven at the end of her life). 416 Duffy (1997. In his encyclical Humanae vitae 247 (1968 Pope Paul VI firmly rejected all contraception, thus contradicting dissenters in the church that saw the birth control pill as an ethically justifiable method of contraception, though he permitted the regulation. Christ's death and resurrection gives grace through the sacrament that unites the faithful with Christ and one another, remits venial sin, and aids against committing moral sin (though mortal sin itself is forgiven through the sacrament of penance). 261 Certain dissenting Catholic groups oppose the position of the Catholic Church and seek to change. As the papacy resisted pushes for Gallicanism, the French Revolution of 1789 shifted power to the state, caused the destruction of churches, the establishment of a Cult of Reason, 334 and the martyrdom of nuns during the Reign of Terror. 12 The Latin Church, the twenty-three Eastern Catholic Churches, and institutes such as mendicant orders and enclosed monastic orders reflect a variety of theological and spiritual emphases in the church.

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In a review of an article from the Encyclopedia of Religion, Gunton writes". . 219 220 Church teaching calls for a preferential option for the poor while canon law prescribes that "The Christian faithful are also obliged to promote social justice and, mindful of the precept of the Lord, to assist the poor.". It is taught that Christ's mission on earth included giving people his teachings and providing his example for them to follow as recorded in the four Gospels. 116 Depending on the judgement rendered following death, it is believed that a soul may enter one of three states of afterlife: Heaven is a state of unending union with the divine nature of God, not ontologically, but by grace. Except for the scriptural readings, which Pope Benedict allowed to be proclaimed in the vernacular language, it is celebrated exclusively in liturgical Latin. Pope Gregory VII further initiated the Gregorian Reforms regarding the independence of the clergy from secular authority. 17 Membership Main article: Catholic Church by country Further information: List of Christian denominations by number of members Church membership, defined as baptised Catholics, was.272 billion at the end of 2014, which.8 of the world population. Additionally, lay members aid many liturgical functions during worship services. 275 In the account of the Confession of Peter found in the Gospel of Matthew, Christ designates Peter as the "rock" upon which Christ's church will be built. 160 Baptism marks a person permanently and cannot be repeated. At the Reformation the term 'Catholic' was claimed as its exclusive right by the body remaining under the Roman obedience, in opposition to the 'Protestant' or 'Reformed' National Churches. Souls in purgatory may be aided in reaching heaven by the prayers of the faithful on earth and by the intercession of saints. 205 An instruction issued four years later spoke of the two forms or usages of the Roman Rite approved by the pope as the ordinary form and the extraordinary form the forma ordinaria " and "the forma extraordinaria. 213 These liturgical rites have an antiquity of at least 200 years before 1570, the date of Pope Pius V's Quo primum, and were thus allowed to continue. 273 274 The Catholic Church teaches that the college of bishops, led by the Bishop of Rome are the successors to the Apostles. 235 Chastity in marriage requires in particular conjugal fidelity and protecting the fecundity of marriage. 239 240 Divorce and declarations of nullity Main article: Declaration of nullity Further information: Divorce law by country Canon law makes no provision for divorce between baptised individuals, as a valid, consummated sacramental marriage is considered to be a lifelong bond.